NOV. 23. - My other work having now stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
NOTE. - During all this time I worked to make this room or cave spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season
of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of
rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.
DECEMBER 10. - I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden
(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the
top on one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason,
too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a gravedigger. I had now a great
deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
DEC. 11. - This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or
posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over each post;
this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off the house.
DEC. 17. - From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on
the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in
some order within doors.
DEC. 20. - Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house,
and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me another table.
DEC. 24. - Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
DEC. 25. - Rain all day.
DEC. 26. - No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.
DEC. 27. - Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I caught it and led
it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
N.B. - I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong
as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green
at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a
thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.
DEC. 28,29,30,31. - Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
JANUARY 1. - Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there were plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.
JAN. 2. - Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon
the goats, but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew
his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
JAN. 3. - I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B. - This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in the
journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time than from the 2nd
of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though
it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from
one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the
cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, sometimes
weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and driving them into
the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced, with a turf wall
raised up close to it, I perceived myself that if any people were to come on shore
there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well
I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day when the rain
permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not
as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but
when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding
them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and
got their young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my household
affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was: for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had
none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not
a clear, steady light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened
that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry - not for this voyage, but before, as
I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had
been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to
put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff
away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything
there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley,
of the same kind as our European - nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on
this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed,
I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of
anything that had befallen me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or His order in governing events for the world. But after I saw barley grow there,
in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not
how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it
was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account; and
this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support, but
not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island, where I had been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock,
to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that place; and then the wonder began
to cease; and I must confess my religious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence
as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled,
when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it being in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it
anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread.
But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of
this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its
order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all,
at least not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which
I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same purpose - to
make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it without baking, though
I did that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my wall done; and the
14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door but over the
wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
APRIL 16. - I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost had all my labour
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus: As I was busy in the inside,
behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over
my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner.
I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear
I should be buried in it I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped do ground, than I plainly saw it
was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at about
eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of
the top of a rock which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell down with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very
sea was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, nor discoursed
with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of
the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing then but the
hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to
take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again, for fear
of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common "Lord have mercy upon me!" and when it was over that went
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if it would rain.
Soon after that the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half-an-hour
it blew a most dreadful hurricane; the sea was all on a sudden covered over with
foam and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water, the trees were
torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours,
and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected;
when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture
into my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent. But the rain was so violent
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work - viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave. After
I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum; which,
however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone. It continued raining all that night and great part of the next day,
so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little
hut in an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and
so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded, if I stayed where
I was, I should certainly one time or other be buried alive.