My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods to secure them from whatever might happen. Where I was,
I yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a
mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw any fate, to my great affliction - viz. that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay
a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues
to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none. Yet I
saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number
of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, and every one according
to his usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature
I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but
it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day. What to do with myself
at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chest and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till
I had got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council -
that is to say in my thoughts - whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was down; and I did
so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenters
stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly
two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, another
fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large bagful of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare
fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land, that at least
my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I came back I found no sign of
any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat
very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind
to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which
I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way, I was not very free of it, for
my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her,
and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore - though I was fain to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks -
I went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut
for that purpose: and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil
either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary
and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all
day to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe,
for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in that
posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day
at low water I went on board, and brought away something or other; but particularly
the third time I went I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also
all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in
pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had made
five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my meddling with - I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead
of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which
I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what
was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable
into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with
all the ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods,
and came away. But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset,
and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm,
for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me; however, when the
tide was out, I got most of the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low water I went
on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds value
in money - some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "O drug!" said I, aloud, "what
art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me - no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee - e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
saying." However, upon second thoughts I took it away; and wrapping all this in
a piece of canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing
this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of
an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it
was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind offshore; and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able
to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about me,
very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with the satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence,
to get everything out of her that could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either savages,
if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make - whether
I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I
resolved upon both; the manner and description of which, it may not be improper
to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, because it was
upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would he proper for
me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat
of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage
for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so
that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the one side of the rock there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave but
there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long,
and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of
the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W.
and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took
in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground
above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in
rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of
time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place,
and drive them into the earth.