The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder
to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so
I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though,
as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made a large tent, which to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double - one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved
among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by
the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till
now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all
the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served
me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought to
perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some
of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself - Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one
blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I should never have known
who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over I laid aside
all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes,
to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the
hope that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep
it so apart that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about two
hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so
I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest
I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit
for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me - viz. that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged
at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for
after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I
observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded that, by
the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward that they did
not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I took this method -
I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a
little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; for when the
old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread
especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a
place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn: and what I did for that, and also how
I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of
in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon that
island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course
of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a
determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner,
I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational
to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to reprove
me; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was
very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: "Well, you are in a desolate condition,
it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come, eleven
of you in the boat? Where are the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why
were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?" And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what
worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence, and
what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand
to one) that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven
so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition in which
I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? "Particularly," said I, aloud (though to myself), "what should
I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything,
or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?" and
that now I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent:
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I lived;
for I considered from the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed at
one blast - I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was by my account the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost over my head;
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that
I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters - and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed - "I came on shore here on the 30th September 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought
out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it,
I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation,
all which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed
up among my things; some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history
I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with
me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant
to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact,
but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any means that
I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things notwithstanding all that I
had amassed together; and of these, ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my habitation.
The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time
in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece
of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which,
however, though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious and
tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything
I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was reduced
to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me - for I was likely to have but few heirs - as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them, and afflicting my mind; and
as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something to
distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-
Evil: I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island, void of all hope of recovery.
Good: But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my ship's company were.
Evil: I am singled out and separated, as it were, from all the world, to be miserable.
Good: But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously saved me from death can deliver me from this condition.
Evil: I am divided from mankind - a solitaire; one banished from human society.
Good: But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place, affording no sustenance.
Evil: I have no clothes to cover me.
Good: But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
Evil: I am without any defence, or means to resist any violence of man or beast.
Good: But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa; and what if I had been shipwrecked there?
Evil: I have no soul to speak to or relieve me.
Good: But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as will either supply my wants or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.