He sank into thought.
"And what if I am wrong," he cried suddenly after a moment's thought. "What if
man is not really a scoundrel, man in general, I mean, the whole race of mankind–
then all the rest is prejudice, simply artificial terrors and there are no barriers
and it's all as it should be." CHAPTERTHREE Chapter Three
HE WAKED up late next day after a broken sleep. But his sleep had not refreshed
him; he waked up bilious, irritable, ill-tempered, and looked with hatred at his
room. It was a tiny cupboard of a room about six paces in length. It had a poverty-stricken
appearance with its dusty yellow paper peeling off the walls, and it was so low-pitched
that a man of more than average height was ill at ease in it and felt every moment
that he would knock his head against the ceiling. The furniture was in keeping with
the room: there were three old chairs, rather rickety; a painted table in the corner
on which lay a few manuscripts and books; the dust that lay thick upon them showed
that they had been long untouched. A big clumsy sofa occupied almost the whole of
one wall and half the floor space of the room; it was once covered with chintz,
but was now in rags and served Raskolnikov as a bed. Often he went to sleep on it,
as he was, without undressing, without sheets, wrapped in his old student's overcoat,
with his head on one little pillow, under which he heaped up all the linen he had,
clean and dirty, by way of a bolster. A little table stood in front of the sofa.
It would have been difficult to sink to a lower ebb of disorder, but to Raskolnikov
in his present state of mind this was positively agreeable. He had got completely
away from every one, like a tortoise in its shell, and even the sight of the servant
girl who had to wait upon him and looked sometimes into his room made him writhe
with nervous irritation. He was in the condition that overtakes some monomaniacs
entirely concentrated upon one thing. His landlady had for the last fortnight given
up sending him in meals, and he had not yet thought of expostulating with her, though
he went without his dinner. Nastasya, the cook and only servant, was rather pleased
at the lodger's mood and had entirely given up sweeping and doing his room, only
once a week or so she would stray into his room with a broom. She waked him up that
"Get up, why are you asleep!" she called to him. "It's past nine, I have brought
you some tea; will you have a cup? I should think you're fairly starving?"
Raskolnikov opened his eyes, started and recognized Nastasya.
"From the landlady, eh?" he asked, slowly and with a sickly face sitting up on
"From the landlady, indeed!"
She set before him her own cracked teapot full of weak and stale tea and laid
two yellow lumps of sugar by the side of it.
"Here, Nastasya, take it please," he said, fumbling in his pocket (for he had
slept in his clothes) and taking out a handful of coppers– "run and buy me a loaf.
And get me a little sausage, the cheapest, at the pork-butcher's."
"The loaf I'll fetch you this very minute, but wouldn't you rather have some
cabbage soup instead of sausage? It's capital soup, yesterday's. I saved it for
you yesterday, but you came in late. It's fine soup."
When the soup had been brought, and he had begun upon it, Nastasya sat down beside
him on the sofa and began chatting. She was a country peasant-woman and a very talkative
"Praskovya Pavlovna means to complain to the police about you," she said.
"To the police? What does she want?"
"You don't pay her money and you won't turn out of the room. That's what she
wants, to be sure."
"The devil, that's the last straw," he muttered, grinding his teeth, "no, that
would not suit me… just now. She is a fool," he added aloud. "I'll go and talk to
"Fool she is and no mistake, just as I am. But why, if you are so clever, do
you lie here like a sack and have nothing to show for it? One time you used to go
out, you say, to teach children. But why is it you do nothing now?"
"I am doing…" Raskolnikov began sullenly and reluctantly.
"What are you doing?"
"What sort of work?"
"I am thinking," he answered seriously after a pause.
Nastasya was overcome with a fit of laughter. She was given to laughter and when
anything amused her, she laughed inaudibly, quivering and shaking all over till
she felt ill.
"And have you made much money by your thinking?" she managed to articulate at
"One can't go out to give lessons without boots. And I'm sick of it."
"Don't quarrel with your bread and butter."
"They pay so little for lessons. What's the use of a few coppers?" he answered,
reluctantly, as though replying to his own thought.
"And you want to get a fortune all at once?"
He looked at her strangely.
"Yes, I want a fortune," he answered firmly, after a brief pause.
"Don't be in such a hurry, you quite frighten me! Shall I get you the loaf or
"As you please."
"Ah, I forgot! A letter came for you yesterday when you were out."
"A letter? for me! from whom?"
"I can't say. I gave three copecks of my own to the postman for it. Will you
pay me back?"
"Then bring it to me, for God's sake, bring it," cried Raskolnikov greatly excited–
A minute later the letter was brought him. That was it: from hismother, from
the province of R. He turned pale when he took it.It was a long while since he had
received a letter, but another feeling also suddenly stabbed his heart.
"Nastasya, leave me alone, for goodness' sake; here are your three copecks, but
for goodness' sake, make haste and go!"
The letter was quivering in his hand; he did not want to open it in her presence;
he wanted to be left alone with this letter. When Nastasya had gone out, he lifted
it quickly to his lips and kissed it; then he gazed intently at the address, the
small, sloping handwriting, so dear and familiar, of the mother who had once taught
him to read and write. He delayed; he seemed almost afraid of something. At last
he opened it; it was a thick heavy letter, weighing over two ounces, two large sheets
of note paper were covered with very small handwriting.
"My dear Rodya," wrote his mother– "it's two months since I last had a talk with
you by letter which has distressed me and even kept me awake at night, thinking.
But I am sure you will not blame me for my inevitable silence. You know how I love
you; you are all we have to look to, Dounia and I, you are our all, our one hope,
our one stay. What a grief it was to me when I heard that you had given up the university
some months ago, for want of means to keep yourself and that you had lost your lessons
and your other work! How could I help you out of my hundred and twenty roubles a
year pension? The fifteen roubles I sent you four months ago I borrowed, as you
know, on security of my pension, from Vassily Ivanovitch Vahrushin a merchant of
this town. He is a kind-hearted man and was a friend of your father's too. But having
given him the right to receive the pension, I had to wait till the debt was paid
off and that is only just done, so that I've been unable to send you anything all
this time. But now, thank God, I believe I shall be able to send you something more
and in fact we may congratulate ourselves on our good fortune now, of which I hasten
to inform you. In the first place, would you have guessed, dear Rodya, that your
sister has been living with me for the last six weeks and we shall not be separated
in the future. Thank God, her sufferings are over, but I will tell you everything
in order, so that you may know just how everything has happened and all that we
have hitherto concealed from you. When you wrote to me two months ago that you had
heard that Dounia had a great deal to put up with in the Svidrigrailovs' house,
when you wrote that and asked me to tell you all about it– what could I write in
answer to you? If I had written the whole truth to you, I dare say you would have
thrown up everything and have come to us, even if you had to walk all the way, for
I know your character and your feelings, and you would not let your sister be insulted.
I was in despair myself, but what could I do? And, besides, I did not know the whole
truth myself then. What made it all so difficult was that Dounia received a hundred
roubles in advance when she took the place as governess in their family, on condition
of part of her salary being deducted every month, and so it was impossible to throw
up the situation without repaying the debt. This sum (now I can explain it all to
you, my precious Rodya) she took chiefly in order to send you sixty roubles, which
you needed so terribly then and which you received from us last year. We deceived
you then, writing that this money came from Dounia's savings, but that was not so,
and now I tell you all about it, because, thank God, things have suddenly changed
for the better, and that you may know how Dounia loves you and what a heart she
has. At first indeed Mr. Svidrigailov treated her very rudely and used to make disrespectful
and jeering remarks at table…. But I don't want to go into all those painful details,
so as not to worry you for nothing when it is now all over. In short, in spite of
the kind and generous behaviour of Marfa Petrovna, Mr. Svidrigailov's wife, and
all the rest of the household, Dounia had a very hard time, especially when Mr.
Svidrigailov, relapsing into his old regimental habits, was under the influence
of Bacchus. And how do you think it was all explained later on? Would you believe
that the crazy fellow had conceived a passion for Dounia from the beginning, but
had concealed it under a show of rudeness and contempt. Possibly he was ashamed
and horrified himself at his own flighty hopes, considering his years and his being
the father of a family; and that made him angry with Dounia. And possibly, too,
he hoped by his rude and sneering behaviour to hide the truth from others. But at
last he lost all control and had the face to make Dounia an open and shameful proposal,
promising her all sorts of inducements and offering, besides, to throw up everything
and take her to another estate of his, or even abroad. You can imagine all she went
through! To leave her situation at once was impossible not only on account of the
money debt, but also to spare the feelings of Marfa Petrovna, whose suspicions would
have been aroused; and then Dounia would have been the cause of a rupture in the
family. And it would have meant a terrible scandal for Dounia too; that would have
been inevitable. There were various other reasons owing to which Dounia could not
hope to escape from that awful house for another six weeks. You know Dounia, of
course; you know how clever she is and what a strong will she has. Dounia can endure
a great deal and even in the most difficult cases she has the fortitude to maintain
her firmness. She did not even write to me about everything for fear of upsetting
me, although we were constantly in communication. It all ended very unexpectedly.
Marfa Petrovna accidentally overheard her husband imploring Dounia in the garden,
and, putting quite a wrong interpretation on the position, threw the blame upon
her, believing her to be the cause of it all. An awful scene took place between
them on the spot in the garden; Marfa Petrovna went so far as to strike Dounia,
refused to hear anything and was shouting at her for a whole hour and then gave
orders that Dounia should be packed off at once to me in a plain peasant's cart,
into which they flung all her things, her linen and her clothes, all pell-mell,
without folding it up and packing it. And a heavy shower of rain came on, too, and
Dounia, insulted and put to shame, had to drive with a peasant in an open cart all
the seventeen versts into town. Only think now what answer could I have sent to
the letter I received from you two months ago and what could I have written? I was
in despair; I dared not write to you the truth because you would have been very
unhappy, mortified and indignant, and yet what could you do? You could only perhaps
ruin yourself, and, besides, Dounia would not allow it; and fill up my letter with
trifles when my heart was so full of sorrow, I could not. For a whole month the
town was full of gossip about this scandal, and it came to such a pass that Dounia
and I dared not even go to church on account of the contemptuous looks, whispers,
and even remarks made aloud about us. All our acquaintances avoided us, nobody even
bowed to us in the street, and I learnt that some shopmen and clerks were intending
to insult us in a shameful way, smearing the gates of our house with pitch, so that
the landlord began to tell us we must leave. All this was set going by Marfa Petrovna
who managed to slander Dounia and throw dirt at her in every family. She knows every
one in the neighbourhood, and that month she was continually coming into the town,
and as she is rather talkative and fond of gossiping about her family affairs and
particularly of complaining to all and each of her husband– which is not at all
right– so in a short time she had spread her story not only in the town, but over
the whole surrounding district. It made me ill, but Dounia bore it better than I
did, and if only you could have seen how she endured it all and tried to comfort
me and cheer me up! She is an angel! But by God's mercy, our sufferings were cut
short: Mr. Svidrigailov returned to his senses and repented and, probably feeling
sorry for Dounia, he laid before Marfa Petrovna a complete and unmistakable proof
of Dounia's innocence, in the form of a letter Dounia had been forced to write and
give to him, before Marfa Petrovna came upon them in the garden. This letter, which
remained in Mr. Svidrigailov's hands after her departure, she had written to refuse
personal explanations and secret interviews, for which he was entreating her. In
that letter she reproached him with great heat and indignation for the baseness
of his behaviour in regard to Marfa Petrovna, reminding him that he was the father
and head of a family and telling him how infamous it was of him to torment and make
unhappy a defenceless girl, unhappy enough already. Indeed, dear Rodya, the letter
was so nobly and touchingly written that I sobbed when I read it and to this day
I cannot read it without tears. Moreover, the evidence of the servants, too, cleared
Dounia's reputation; they had seen and known a great deal more than Mr. Svidrigailov
had himself supposed– as indeed is always the case with servants. Marfa Petrovna
was completely taken aback, and 'again crushed' as she said herself to us, but she
was completely convinced of Dounia's innocence. The very next day, being Sunday,
she went straight to the Cathedral, knelt down and prayed with tears to Our Lady
to give her strength to bear this new trial and to do her duty. Then she came straight
from the Cathedral to us, told us the whole story, wept bitterly and, fully penitent,
she embraced Dounia and besought her to forgive her. The same morning without any
delay, she went round to all the houses in the town and everywhere, shedding tears,
she asserted in the most flattering terms Dounia's innocence and the nobility of
her feelings and her behavior. What was more, she showed and read to every one the
letter in Dounia's own handwriting to Mr. Svidrigailov and even allowed them to
take copies of it– which I must say I think was superfluous. In this way she was
busy for several days in driving about the whole town, because some people had taken
offence through precedence having been given to others. And therefore they had to
take turns, so that in every house she was expected before she arrived, and every
one knew that on such and such a day Marfa Petrovna would be reading the letter
in such and such a place and people assembled for every reading of it, even many
who had heard it several times already both in their own houses and in other people's.
In my opinion a great deal, a very great deal of all this was unnecessary; but that's
Marfa Petrovna's character. Anyway she succeeded in completely re-establishing Dounia's
reputation and the whole ignominy of this affair rested as an indelible disgrace
upon her husband, as the only person to blame, so that I really began to feel sorry
for him; it was really treating the crazy fellow too harshly. Dounia was at once
asked to give lessons in several families, but she refused. All of a sudden every
one began to treat her with marked respect and all this did much to bring about
the event by which, one may say, our whole fortunes are now transformed. You must
know, dear Rodya, that Dounia has a suitor and that she has already consented to
marry him. I hasten to tell you all about the matter, and though it has been arranged
without asking your consent, I think you will not be aggrieved with me or with your
sister on that account, for you will see that we could not wait and put off our
decision till we heard from you. And you could not have judged all the facts without
being on the spot. This was how it happened. He is already of the rank of a counsellor,
Pyotr Petrovitch Luzhin, and is distantly related to Marfa Petrovna, who has been
very active in bringing the match about. It began with his expressing through her
his desire to make our acquaintance. He was properly received, drank coffee with
us and the very next day he sent us a letter in which he very courteously made an
offer and begged for a speedy and decided answer. He is a very busy man and is in
a great hurry to get to Petersburg, so that every moment is precious to him. At
first, of course, we were greatly surprised, as it had all happened so quickly and
unexpectedly. We thought and talked it over the whole day. He is a well-to-do man,
to be depended upon, he has two posts in the government and has already made his
fortune. It is true that he is forty-five years old, but he is of a fairly prepossessing
appearance and might still be thought attractive by women, and he is altogether
a very respectable and presentable man, only he seems a little morose and somewhat
conceited. But possibly that may only be the impression he makes at first sight.
And beware, dear Rodya, when he comes to Petersburg, as he shortly will do, beware
of judging him too hastily and severely, as your way is, if there is anything you
do not like in him at first sight. I give you this warning, although I feel sure
that he will make a favourable impression upon you. Moreover, in order to understand
any man one must be deliberate and careful to avoid forming prejudices and mistaken
ideas, which are very difficult to correct and get over afterwards. And Pyotr Petrovitch,
judging by many indications, is a thoroughly estimable man. At his first visit,
indeed, he told us that he was a practical man, but still he shares, as he expressed
it, many of the convictions 'of our most rising generation' and he is an opponent
of all prejudices. He said a good deal more, for he seems a little conceited and
likes to be listened to, but this is scarcely a vice. I, of course, understood very
little of it, but Dounia explained to me that, though he is not a man of great education,
he is clever and seems to be good-natured. You know your sister's character, Rodya.
She is a resolute, sensible, patient and generous girl, but she has a passionate
heart, as I know very well. Of course, there is no great love either on his side,
or on hers, but Dounia is a clever girl and has the heart of an angel, and will
make it her duty to make her husband happy who on his side will make her happiness
his care. Of that we have no good reason to doubt, though it must be admitted the
matter has been arranged in great haste. Besides he is a man of great prudence and
he will see, to be sure, of himself, that his own happiness will be the more secure,
the happier Dounia is with him. And as for some defects of character, for some habits
and even certain differences of opinion– which indeed are inevitable even in the
happiest marriages– Dounia has said that, as regards all that, she relies on herself,
that there is nothing to be uneasy about, and that she is ready to put up with a
great deal, if only their future relationship can be an honourable and straightforward
one. He struck me, for instance, at first, as rather abrupt, but that may well come
from his being an outspoken man, and that is no doubt how it is. For instance, at
his second visit, after he had received Dounia's consent, in the course of conversation,
he declared that before making Dounia's acquaintance, he had made up his mind to
marry a girl of good reputation, without dowry and, above all, one who had experienced
poverty, because, as he explained, a man ought not to be indebted to his wife, but
that it is better for a wife to look upon her husband as her benefactor. I must
add that he expressed it more nicely and politely than I have done, for I have forgotten
his actual phrases and only remember the meaning. And, besides, it was obviously
not said of design, but slipped out in the heat of conversation, so that he tried
afterwards to correct himself and smooth it over, but all the same it did strike
me as somewhat rude, and I said so afterwards to Dounia. But Dounia was vexed, and
answered that 'words are not deeds,' and that, of course, is perfectly true. Dounia
did not sleep all night before she made up her mind, and, thinking that I was asleep,
she got out of bed and was walking up and down the room all night; at last she knelt
down before the ikon and prayed long and fervently and in the morning she told me
that she had decided.